XEP-0048: Bookmark Storage

This specification documents a protocol for the storage of bookmarks to conference rooms and other entities in a Jabber user's account.

NOTICE: This Historical specification provides canonical documentation of a protocol that is in use within the Jabber/XMPP community. This document is not a standards-track specification within the XMPP Standards Foundation's standards process; however, it may be converted to standards-track in the future or may be obsoleted by a more modern protocol.

Document Information

Series: XEP
Number: 0048
Publisher: XMPP Standards Foundation
Status: Active
Type: Historical
Version: 1.0
Last Updated: 2003-10-08
Approving Body: XMPP Council
Dependencies: XMPP Core, XEP-0049
Supersedes: None
Superseded By: None
Short Name: bookmarks
Schema: <http://www.xmpp.org/schemas/bookmarks.xsd>
Wiki Page: <http://wiki.jabber.org/index.php/Bookmark Storage (XEP-0048)>

Author Information

Rachel Blackman

Email: rcb@ceruleanstudios.com
JabberID: sparks@jabber.org

Peter Millard

See Author Note

Legal Notice

This XMPP Extension Protocol is copyright 1999 - 2007 by the XMPP Standards Foundation (XSF) and is in full conformance with the XSF's Intellectual Property Rights Policy <http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/ipr-policy.shtml>. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution License (<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/>).

Discussion Venue

The preferred venue for discussion of this document is the Standards discussion list: <http://mail.jabber.org/mailman/listinfo/standards>.

Relation to XMPP

The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 3920) and XMPP IM (RFC 3921) specifications contributed by the XMPP Standards Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.

Conformance Terms

The following keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. The storage:bookmarks Namespace
    2.1. The url element
    2.2. The conference element
3. Security Considerations
4. IANA Considerations
5. XMPP Registrar Considerations
6. XML Schema
7. Author Note
Revision History

1. Introduction

For ease-of-use in a Jabber client, it is desirable to have a way to store shortcuts to various services and resources (such as conference rooms and webpages) as 'bookmarks' which can be displayed in the user's client. Several Jabber clients have already agreed on and implemented a method to provide this service; that informal agreement is documented and expanded upon in this document.

Private XML Storage [1] provides us with a convenient method for storing user data on the server using jabber:iq:private; all we need to do is define a namespace and schema for storing this sort of information. To this end, we introduce the 'storage' element, and the 'storage:bookmarks' to handle this data.

2. The storage:bookmarks Namespace

A storage element marked by the storage:bookmarks namespace will contain a collection of child elements, each representing a 'bookmark' to be displayed in the client. At present, only two sub-elements are defined, 'conference' for conference rooms and 'url' for normal URLs.

All elements under storage MUST allow a 'name' tag, which is the friendly name by which they will be displayed in the client. If an element lacks a 'name' tag, the client SHOULD generate an appropriate substitution based on the other available data.

2.1 The url element

URLs are fairly simple, as they only need to store a URL and a title, and the client then can simply launch the appropriate browser.

A URL element therefore only needs a 'url' tag in addition to the required 'name', like so:

Example 1. An example of the URL element

<iq type='result' id='1'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:private'>
    <storage xmlns='storage:bookmarks'>
      <url name='Complete Works of Shakespeare'

This bookmark would be displayed in the client as 'Complete Works of Shakespeare' and would take the user to http://the-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/ if activated. A bookmark set can contain any number of urls.

2.2 The conference element

One of the most common uses of bookmarks will likely be to bookmark conference rooms on various Jabber servers. It is this aspect of the bookmark system which is used today by existing clients such as Exodus [2] and Rival Messenger [3]. In addition to the required 'jid' attribute, the conference element also possesses an 'autojoin' attribute, which determines whether or not the client should automatically join that conference room on login; this attribute is of type xs:boolean (see XML Schema Part 2 [4]) and the default value is "false". [5]

The conference element MAY also contain 'nick' and 'password' sub-elements; the XML character data from these elements should be used when joining the room from the bookmark. Password is, of course, important for joining potentially password-protected Multi-User Chat [6] rooms.

Example 2. An example of the conference element

<iq type='result' id='2'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:private'>
    <storage xmlns='storage:bookmarks'>
      <conference name='Council of Oberon' 

This bookmark would be displayed as 'Council of Oberon' and, if activated, would attempt to join the conference room 'council@conference.underhill.org' with nickname 'Puck' and password 'titania'. A bookmark set may contain any number of conference rooms.

3. Security Considerations

Security considerations related to private XML storage are described in XEP-0049.

4. IANA Considerations

This document requires no interaction with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) [7].

5. XMPP Registrar Considerations

No namespaces or parameters need to be registered with the XMPP Registrar [8] as a result of this document.

6. XML Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>


      The protocol documented by this schema is defined in
      XEP-0048: http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0048.html

  <xs:element name='storage'>
        <xs:element ref='url'/>
        <xs:element ref='conference'/>

  <xs:element name='url'>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='name' type='xs:string' use='required'/>
          <xs:attribute name='url' type='xs:string' use='required'/>

  <xs:element name='conference'>
        <xs:element name='nick' type='xs:string' minOccurs='0'/>
        <xs:element name='password' type='xs:string' minOccurs='0'/>
      <xs:attribute name='autojoin' type='xs:boolean' use='optional' default='false'/>
      <xs:attribute name='jid' type='xs:string' use='required'/>
      <xs:attribute name='name' type='xs:string' use='required'/>

  <xs:simpleType name='empty'>
    <xs:restriction base='xs:string'>
      <xs:enumeration value=''/>


7. Author Note

Peter Millard, a co-author of this specification from version 0.1 through version 1.0, died on April 26, 2006.


1. XEP-0049: Private XML Storage <http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0049.html>.

2. Exodus, see <http://exodus.jabberstudio.org/>.

3. Rival Messenger, see <http://rival.chote.net/>.

4. XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/>.

5. In accordance with Section of XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, the allowable lexical representations for the xs:boolean datatype are the strings "0" and "false" for the concept 'false' and the strings "1" and "true" for the concept 'true'; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical representation.

6. XEP-0045: Multi-User Chat <http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0045.html>.

7. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.

8. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the XMPP Standards Foundation. For further information, see <http://www.xmpp.org/registrar/>.

Revision History

Version 1.0 (2003-10-08)

Per a vote of the Jabber Council, changed status to Active; also added XML schema. (psa)

Version 0.3 (2003-05-13)

Re-focused to document only the existing protocol in use. (rcb)

Version 0.2 (2002-10-03)

Typos, etc... (pgm)

Version 0.1 (2002-10-03)

Initial version. (pgm)