XEP-xxxx: Use of DTLS-SRTP in Jingle Sessions

Abstract:This specification defines how to use DTLS-SRTP (RFC 5763) in the Jingle application type for the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) as a way to negotiate media path key agreement for secure RTP in one-to-one media sessions.
Author:Philipp Hancke
Copyright:© 1999 - 2013 XMPP Standards Foundation. SEE LEGAL NOTICES.
Status:ProtoXEP
Type:Standards Track
Version:0.0.2
Last Updated:2013-02-18

WARNING: This document has not yet been accepted for consideration or approved in any official manner by the XMPP Standards Foundation, and this document is not yet an XMPP Extension Protocol (XEP). If this document is accepted as a XEP by the XMPP Council, it will be published at <http://xmpp.org/extensions/> and announced on the <standards@xmpp.org> mailing list.


Table of Contents


1. Protocol
2. Determining Support
3. Security Considerations
4. IANA Considerations
5. Acknowledgements
6. XMPP Registrar Considerations
    6.1. Protocol Namespaces
    6.2. Protocol Versioning
7. XML Schemas

Appendices
    A: Document Information
    B: Author Information
    C: Legal Notices
    D: Relation to XMPP
    E: Discussion Venue
    F: Requirements Conformance
    G: Notes
    H: Revision History


1. Protocol

Jingle RTP Sessions [1] recommends the use of the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) for end-to-end encryption of RTP sessions negotiated using Jingle [2]. RFC 5763 [3] provides an approach to establish a Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) security context using the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol. A mechanism of transporting the fingerprint attribute that identifies the key that will be presented during the DTLS handshake in Jingle is defined herein. Inclusion of this information is OPTIONAL in both SIP/SDP and Jingle.

Note that while this specification only describes the use in the context of DTLS-SRTP, the fingerprint transported can be used in other contexts like for example establishing connections using SCTP over DTLS.

The SDP format (defined in RFC 4572 [4]) is shown below.

a=fingerprint:hash-func fingerprint
  

An example follows.

a=fingerprint:sha-256 02:1A:CC:54:27:AB:EB:9C:53:3F:3E:4B:65:2E:7D:46:3F:54:42:CD:54:F1:7A:03:A2:7D:F9:B0:7F:46:19:B2
  

This SDP attribute can be translated into Jingle as a <fingerprint/> element qualified by the 'urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' namespace, as shown below.

<fingerprint xmlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' hash='hash-func'>fingerprint</fingerprint>
  

An example follows.

<fingerprint mlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' hash='sha-256'>
  02:1A:CC:54:27:AB:EB:9C:53:3F:3E:4B:65:2E:7D:46:3F:54:42:CD:54:F1:7A:03:A2:7D:F9:B0:7F:46:19:B2
</fingerprint>
  

Note: since DTLS can be used to protect non-RTP sessions like SCTP including the fingerprint in the <encryption/> element defined in Jingle RTP Sessions [5] was deemed inappropriate. Also, the <encryption/> element defined there only applies to the encryption of the RTP data part, whereas DTLS (and DTLS-SRTP) protects the whole message.

If the Jingle initiator wishes to use DTLS-SRTP, it includes the <fingerprint/> element in its session invitation. If the initiator requires the use of DTLS, the <fingerprint/> element MUST include a 'required' attribute whose logical value is TRUE and whose lexical value is "true" or "1" [6], where this attribute defaults to a logical value of FALSE (i.e., a lexical value of "false" or "0").

Example 1. Initiator sends session invitation with DTLS fingerprint

<iq from='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
    id='uz61v4m4'
    to='juliet@capulet.lit/balcony'
    type='set'>
  <jingle xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:1'
          action='session-initiate'
          initiator='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
          sid='a73sjjvkla37jfea'>
    <content creator='initiator' name='voice'>
      <description xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:apps:rtp:1' media='audio'>
        <payload-type id='96' name='speex' clockrate='16000'/>
        <payload-type id='97' name='speex' clockrate='8000'/>
        <payload-type id='18' name='G729'/>
        <payload-type id='103' name='L16' clockrate='16000' channels='2'/>
        <payload-type id='98' name='x-ISAC' clockrate='8000'/>
      </description>
      <transport xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:transports:ice-udp:1'
                 pwd='asd88fgpdd777uzjYhagZg'
                 ufrag='8hhy'>
	<fingerprint xmlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' hash='sha-256' required='true'>
	  02:1A:CC:54:27:AB:EB:9C:53:3F:3E:4B:65:2E:7D:46:3F:54:42:CD:54:F1:7A:03:A2:7D:F9:B0:7F:46:19:B2
	</fingerprint>
        <candidate component='1'
                   foundation='1'
                   generation='0'
                   id='el0747fg11'
                   ip='10.0.1.1'
                   network='1'
                   port='8998'
                   priority='2130706431'
                   protocol='udp'
                   type='host'/>
        <candidate component='1'
                   foundation='2'
                   generation='0'
                   id='y3s2b30v3r'
                   ip='192.0.2.3'
                   network='1'
                   port='45664'
                   priority='1694498815'
                   protocol='udp'
                   rel-addr='10.0.1.1'
                   rel-port='8998'
                   type='srflx'/>
      </transport>
    </content>
  </jingle>
</iq>
    

If the receiving party wishes to use DTLS, it also includes the <fingerprint/> element in its session-accept message.

Example 2. Responder sends session-accept

<iq from='juliet@capulet.lit/balcony'
    id='pn2va48j'
    to='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
    type='set'>
  <jingle xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:1'
          action='session-accept'
          initiator='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
          responder='juliet@capulet.lit/balcony'
          sid='a73sjjvkla37jfea'>
    <content creator='initiator' name='voice'>
      <description xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:apps:rtp:1' media='audio'>
        <payload-type id='97' name='speex' clockrate='8000'/>
        <payload-type id='18' name='G729'/>
      </description>
      <transport xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:transports:ice-udp:1'
                 pwd='YH75Fviy6338Vbrhrlp8Yh'
                 ufrag='9uB6'>
	<fingerprint xmlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' hash='sha-256' required='1'>
	  BD:E8:2C:D3:BD:B6:98:50:45:7D:5B:36:89:53:31:15:52:25:88:82:06:95:88:A3:3D:A5:43:8D:5C:21:21:66
	</fingerprint>
        <candidate component='1'
                   foundation='1'
                   generation='0'
                   id='or2ii2syr1'
                   ip='192.0.2.1'
                   network='0'
                   port='3478'
                   priority='2130706431'
                   protocol='udp'
                   type='host'/>
      </transport>
    </content>
  </jingle>
</iq>
    

Alternatively, if the receiving party wishes to expedite with ICE and DTLS negotiation without accepting the session, it MAY include the <fingerprint/> element when sending a transport-info message:

Example 3. A transport-info containing a DTLS fingerprint

<iq from='juliet@capulet.lit/balcony'
    id='pn2va48j'
    to='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
    type='set'>
  <jingle xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:1'
          action='transport-info'
          initiator='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'
          responder='juliet@capulet.lit/balcony'
          sid='a73sjjvkla37jfea'>
    <content creator='initiator' name='voice'>
      <transport xmlns='urn:xmpp:jingle:transports:ice-udp:1'
                 pwd='YH75Fviy6338Vbrhrlp8Yh'
                 ufrag='9uB6'>
	<fingerprint xmlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0' hash='sha-256' required='1'>
	  BD:E8:2C:D3:BD:B6:98:50:45:7D:5B:36:89:53:31:15:52:25:88:82:06:95:88:A3:3D:A5:43:8D:5C:21:21:66
	</fingerprint>
        <candidate component='1'
                   foundation='1'
                   generation='0'
                   id='or2ii2syr1'
                   ip='192.0.2.1'
                   network='0'
                   port='3478'
                   priority='2130706431'
                   protocol='udp'
                   type='host'/>
      </transport>
    </content>
  </jingle>
</iq>
    

2. Determining Support

If an entity supports establishing a Secure Real-time Transport Protocol security context using the Datagram Transport Layer Security protocol, it MUST advertise that fact in its responses to Service Discovery [7] information ("disco#info") requests by returning a feature of "urn:xmpp:jingle:apps:dtls:0":

Example 4. A disco#info query

<iq type='get' 
    from='calvin@usrobots.lit/lab'
    to='herbie@usrobots.lit/home'
    id='disco1'>
  <query xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/disco#info'/>
</iq>
  

Example 5. A disco#info response

<iq type='result' 
    from='herbie@usrobots.lit/home'
    to='calvin@usrobots.lit/lab'
    id='disco1'>
  <query xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/disco#info'>
    <feature var='urn:xmpp:jingle:1'/>
    <feature var='urn:xmpp:jingle:apps:dtls:0'/>
  </query>
</iq>
  

In order for an application to determine whether an entity supports this protocol, where possible it SHOULD use the dynamic, presence-based profile of service discovery defined in Entity Capabilities [8]. However, if an application has not received entity capabilities information from an entity, it SHOULD use explicit service discovery instead.

3. Security Considerations

Security considerations for DTLS-SRTP itself are provided in RFC 5763.

XMPP stanzas such as Jingle messages and service discovery exchanges are not encrypted or signed. As a result, it is possible for an attacker to intercept these stanzas and modify them, thus convincing one party that the other party does not support DTLS-SRTP and therefore denying the parties an opportunity to use DTLS-SRTP.

4. IANA Considerations

This document requires no interaction with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) [9].

5. Acknowledgements

Thanks to Justin Uberti.

6. XMPP Registrar Considerations

6.1 Protocol Namespaces

This specification defines the following XML namespace:

The XMPP Registrar [10] includes the foregoing namespace to the registry located at <http://xmpp.org/registrar/namespaces.html>, as described in Section 4 of XMPP Registrar Function [11].

6.2 Protocol Versioning

If the protocol defined in this specification undergoes a revision that is not fully backwards-compatible with an older version, the XMPP Registrar shall increment the protocol version number found at the end of the XML namespaces defined herein, as described in Section 4 of XEP-0053.

7. XML Schemas

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>

<xs:schema
    xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0'
    xmlns='urn:xmpp:tmp:jingle:apps:dtls:0'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xs:annotation>
    <xs:documentation>
      The protocol documented by this schema is defined in
      XEP-xxxx: http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/xep-xxxx.html
    </xs:documentation>
  </xs:annotation>

  <xs:element name='fingerprint'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='xs:string'>
          <xs:attribute name='hash' type='xs:string' use='required'/>
	  <xs:attribute name='required' type='xs:boolean' default='false'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

</xs:schema>
  

Appendices


Appendix A: Document Information

Series: XEP
Number: xxxx
Publisher: XMPP Standards Foundation
Status: ProtoXEP
Type: Standards Track
Version: 0.0.2
Last Updated: 2013-02-18
Approving Body: XMPP Council
Dependencies: XMPP Core, XEP-0166, XEP-0167, RFC 4572, RFC 5763
Supersedes: None
Superseded By: None
Short Name: NOT_YET_ASSIGNED
This document in other formats: XML  PDF


Appendix B: Author Information

Philipp Hancke

JabberID: fippo@psyced.org


Appendix C: Legal Notices

Copyright

This XMPP Extension Protocol is copyright © 1999 - 2013 by the XMPP Standards Foundation (XSF).

Permissions

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this specification (the "Specification"), to make use of the Specification without restriction, including without limitation the rights to implement the Specification in a software program, deploy the Specification in a network service, and copy, modify, merge, publish, translate, distribute, sublicense, or sell copies of the Specification, and to permit persons to whom the Specification is furnished to do so, subject to the condition that the foregoing copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Specification. Unless separate permission is granted, modified works that are redistributed shall not contain misleading information regarding the authors, title, number, or publisher of the Specification, and shall not claim endorsement of the modified works by the authors, any organization or project to which the authors belong, or the XMPP Standards Foundation.

Disclaimer of Warranty

## NOTE WELL: This Specification is provided on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ##

Limitation of Liability

In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall the XMPP Standards Foundation or any author of this Specification be liable for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising from, out of, or in connection with the Specification or the implementation, deployment, or other use of the Specification (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if the XMPP Standards Foundation or such author has been advised of the possibility of such damages.

IPR Conformance

This XMPP Extension Protocol has been contributed in full conformance with the XSF's Intellectual Property Rights Policy (a copy of which can be found at <http://xmpp.org/about-xmpp/xsf/xsf-ipr-policy/> or obtained by writing to XMPP Standards Foundation, 1899 Wynkoop Street, Suite 600, Denver, CO 80202 USA).

Appendix D: Relation to XMPP

The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 6120) and XMPP IM (RFC 6121) specifications contributed by the XMPP Standards Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.


Appendix E: Discussion Venue

There exists a special venue for discussion related to the technology described in this document: the <jingle@xmpp.org> mailing list.

The primary venue for discussion of XMPP Extension Protocols is the <standards@xmpp.org> discussion list.

Discussion on other xmpp.org discussion lists might also be appropriate; see <http://xmpp.org/about/discuss.shtml> for a complete list.

Given that this XMPP Extension Protocol normatively references IETF technologies, discussion on the <xsf-ietf@xmpp.org> list might also be appropriate.

Errata can be sent to <editor@xmpp.org>.


Appendix F: Requirements Conformance

The following requirements keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".


Appendix G: Notes

1. XEP-0167: Jingle RTP Sessions <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0167.html>.

2. XEP-0166: Jingle <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0166.html>.

3. RFC 5763: Framework for Establishing a Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) Security Context Using Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5763>.

4. RFC 4572: Connection-Oriented Media Transport over the Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4572>.

5. XEP-0167: Jingle RTP Sessions <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0167.html>.

6. In accordance with Section 3.2.2.1 of XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, the allowable lexical representations for the xs:boolean datatype are the strings "0" and "false" for the concept 'false' and the strings "1" and "true" for the concept 'true'; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical representation.

7. XEP-0030: Service Discovery <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0030.html>.

8. XEP-0115: Entity Capabilities <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0115.html>.

9. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.

10. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the XMPP Standards Foundation. For further information, see <http://xmpp.org/registrar/>.

11. XEP-0053: XMPP Registrar Function <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0053.html>.


Appendix H: Revision History

Note: Older versions of this specification might be available at http://xmpp.org/extensions/attic/

Version 0.0.2 (2013-02-18)

Second draft, rewrite no longer based on XEP-0262.

(ph)

Version 0.0.1 (2012-12-13)

First draft, copied from XEP-0262.

(ph)

END