XEP-0198: Stream Management

Abstract:This specification defines an XMPP protocol extension for active management of an XML stream between two XMPP entities, including features for stanza acknowledgements, stream resumption, and throttling notifications.
Authors:Justin Karneges, Joe Hildebrand, Peter Saint-Andre, Fabio Forno
Copyright:© 1999 - 2010 XMPP Standards Foundation. SEE LEGAL NOTICES.
Status:Draft
Type:Standards Track
Version:1.1rc1
Last Updated:in progress, last updated 2010-02-24

NOTICE: The protocol defined herein is a Draft Standard of the XMPP Standards Foundation. Implementations are encouraged and the protocol is appropriate for deployment in production systems, but some changes to the protocol are possible before it becomes a Final Standard.


Table of Contents


1. Introduction
2. Stream Feature
3. Enabling Stream Management
4. Acks
5. Resumption
6. Throttling
7. Error Handling
8. Stream Closure
9. Scenarios
    9.1. Basic Acking Scenario
    9.2. Efficient Acking Scenario
    9.3. Throttling Scenario
10. Security Considerations
11. IANA Considerations
12. XMPP Registrar Considerations
    12.1. Protocol Namespaces
    12.2. Protocol Versioning
    12.3. Stream Features
13. XML Schemas
14. Acknowledgements

Appendices
    A: Document Information
    B: Author Information
    C: Legal Notices
    D: Relation to XMPP
    E: Discussion Venue
    F: Requirements Conformance
    G: Notes
    H: Revision History


1. Introduction

XMPP Core [1] defines the fundamental streaming XML technology used by XMPP (i.e., stream establishment and termination including authentication and encryption). However, the core XMPP specification does not provide tools for actively managing a "live" XML stream.

The basic concept behind stream management is that the initiating entity (either a client or a server) and the receiving entity (a server) can exchange "commands" for active management of the stream. The following stream management features are of particular interest because they are expected to improve network reliability and the end-user experience:

Stream management implements these features using short XML elements at the root stream level. These elements are not "stanzas" in the XMPP sense (i.e., not <iq/>, <message/>, or <presence/> stanzas as defined in RFC 3920 [2]) and are not counted or acked in stream management, since they exist for the purpose of managing stanzas themselves.

Stream management is used at the level of an XML stream. To check TCP connectivity underneath a given stream, it is RECOMMENDED to use XMPP Ping [3], whitespace keepalives (see Section 5.7.3 of rfc3920bis [4]), or TCP keepalives. By constrast with stream management, Advanced Message Processing [5] and Message Receipts [6] define acks that are sent end-to-end over multiple streams; these facilities are useful in special scenarios but are unnecessary for checking of a direct stream between two XMPP entities.

(Examples prepended by "C:" are sent by a client and examples prepended by "S:" are sent by a server. Stream management can be used server-to-server but most of the examples in this specification show its use between a client and a server.)

2. Stream Feature

After negotiating use of TLS and authenticating via SASL, the receiving entity returns a new stream header to the intiating entity along with stream features, where the features include an <sm/> element qualified by the 'urn:xmpp:sm:2' namespace (see Namespace Versioning regarding the possibility of incrementing the version number).

The stream management feature MUST NOT be offered unless the initiating entity has been authenticated (e.g., by means of SASL, Non-SASL Authentication [7], or Server Dialback [8]).

Example 1. Server sends new stream header along with stream features

S: <stream:stream
       from='example.com'
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       version='1.0'>

S: <stream:features>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <required/>
     </bind>
     <sm xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'>
       <optional/>
     </sm>
   </stream:features>
  

3. Enabling Stream Management

To enable use of stream management, the initiating entity sends an <enable/> command to the receiving entity.

Example 2. Client enables stream management

C: <enable xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
  

If the initiating entity wants to be allowed to resume the stream, it includes a boolean 'resume' attribute, which defaults to false [9]. For information about resuming a previous session, see the Resumption section of this document.

The <enable/> element MAY include a 'max' attribute to specify the initiating entity's preferred maximum resumption time in seconds.

The <enable/> element MAY include a 'stanzas' attribute to specify the initiating entity's preferred number of stanzas between acks.

Upon receiving the enable request, the receiving entity MUST reply with an <enabled/> element or a <failed/> element qualified by the 'urn:xmpp:sm:2' namespace. The <failed/> element indicates that there was a problem establishing the stream management "session". The <enabled/> element indicates successful establishment of the stream management session.

Example 3. Server enables stream management

S: <enabled xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
  

The parties can then the use stream management features defined below.

If the receiving entity allows session resumption, it MUST include a 'resume' attribute set to a value of "true" or "1".

Example 4. Server enables stream management with session resumption

S: <enabled xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' id='some-long-sm-id' resume='true'/>
  

The <enabled/> element MAY include a 'max' attribute to specify the receiving entity's preferred maximum resumption time.

The <enabled/> element MAY include a 'stanzas' attribute to specify the receiving entity's preferred number of stanzas between acks.

For client-to-server connections, the client SHOULD NOT attempt to enable stream management until after it has completed Resource Binding unless it is resuming a previous session (see Resumption). The server MAY enforce this order and return a <failed/> element in response (see Error Handling).

Example 5. Server returns error if client attempts to enable stream management before resource binding

S: <failed xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'>
     <unexpected-request xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
   </failed>
  

4. Acks

After enabling stream management, the initiating or receiving entity can send ack elements at any time over the stream. An ack element is one of the following:

The following attribute is defined:

An <a/> element MUST possess an 'h' attribute.

An <r/> element SHOULD NOT possess any attributes.

Definition: Acknowledging a previously-received ack element indicates that the stanza(s) sent since then have been "handled" by the receiver. By "handled" we mean that the receiver has accepted responsibility for a stanza or stanzas (e.g., to process the stanza(s) directly, deliver the stanza(s) to a local entity such as another connected client on the same server, or route the stanza(s) to a remote entity at a different server); until a stanza has been affirmed as handled by the receiver, that stanza is the responsibility of the sender (e.g., to resend it or generate an error if it is never affirmed as handled by the receiver).

Note: The value of 'h' starts at zero before any stanzas are handled, is incremented to one for the first stanza handled, and is incremented again with each subsequent stanza handled. In the unlikely case that the number of stanzas handled during a stream management session exceeds the number of digits that can be represented by the unsignedInt datatype as specified in XML Schema Part 2 [10] (i.e., 232), the value of 'h' shall be reset from 232-1 back to zero (rather than being incremented to 232).

The following example shows a message sent by the client, a request for acknowledgement, and an ack of the stanza.

Example 6. Simple stanza acking

C: <message from='laurence@example.net/churchyard'
            to='juliet@example.com'
            xml:lang='en'>
     <body>
       I'll send a friar with speed, to Mantua, 
       with my letters to thy lord.
     </body>
   </message>

C: <r xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'>

S: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='0'>
  

When an <r/> element ("request") is received, the recipient MUST acknowledge it by sending an <a/> element to the sender containing a value of 'h' that is equal to the number of stanzas handled by the recipient of the <r/> element. The response SHOULD be sent as soon as possible after receiving the <r/> element, and MUST NOT be withheld for any condition other than a timeout. For example, a client with a slow connection might want to collect many stanzas over a period of time before acking, and a server might want to throttle incoming stanzas. The sender does not have to wait for an ack to continue sending stanzas. Because acks indicate stanza acceptance, a server that is throttling stanzas MUST delay the response until the client is no longer being penalized (but SHOULD notify the client that it is throttling incoming stanzas, as described under Throttling).

When a party returns an ack in response to an <r/> element or receives such an ack, it SHOULD keep a record of the 'h' value returned as the sequence number of the last handled stanza for the current stream (and discard the previous 'h' value).

If a stream ends and it is not resumed within the time specified in the original <enabled/> element, the sequence number and any associated state MAY be discarded by both parties. Before the session state is discarded, implementations SHOULD take alternative action regarding any unhandled stanzas (i.e., stanzas sent after the most recent 'h' value):

5. Resumption

It can happen that an XML stream is terminated unexpectedly (e.g., because of network outages). In this case, it is desirable to quickly resume the former stream rather than complete the tedious process of stream establishment, roster retrieval, and presence broadcast.

To request that the stream will be resumable, when enabling stream management the initiating entity MUST add a 'resume' attribute to the <enable/> element with a value of "true" or "1" [11].

Example 7. Client enables stream management

C: <enable xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' resume='true'/>
  

If the receiving entity will allow the stream to be resumed, it MUST include a 'resume' attribute set to "true" or "1" on the <enabled/> element and MUST include an 'id' attribute that specifies an identifier for the stream.

Example 8. Server allows stream resumption

S: <enabled xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' id='some-long-sm-id' resume='true'/>
  

Definition: The 'id' attribute defines a unique identifier for purposes of stream management (an "SM-ID"). The SM-ID MUST be generated by the receiving entity (server). The initiating entity MUST consider the SM-ID to be opaque and therefore MUST NOT assign any semantic meaning to the SM-ID. The receiving entity MAY encode any information it deems useful into the SM-ID, such as the full JID <localpart@domain.tld/resource> of a connected client (e.g., the full JID plus a nonce value). Any characters allowed in an XML attribute are allowed. The SM-ID MUST NOT be reused for simultaneous or subsequent sessions (but the server need not ensure that SM-IDs are unique for all time, only for as long as the server is continuously running). The SM-ID SHOULD NOT be longer than 4000 bytes.

If the stream is terminated unexpectedly, the initiating entity would then open a TCP connection to the receiving entity. The order of events is as follows:

  1. Initiating entity sends initial stream header.
  2. Receiving entity sends response stream header.
  3. Receiving entity sends stream features.
  4. Initiating entity sends STARTTLS request.
  5. Receiving entity informs initiating entity to proceed with the TLS negotiation.
  6. The parties complete a TLS handshake. (Note: When performing session resumption and also utilizing TLS, it is RECOMMENDED to take advantage of TLS session resumption to further optimize the resumption of the XML stream.)
  7. Initiating entity sends new initial stream header.
  8. Receiving entity sends response stream header.
  9. Receiving entity sends stream features, requiring SASL negotiation and offering appropriate SASL mechanisms. (Note: If the server considers the information provided during TLS session resumption to be sufficient authentication, it MAY offer the SASL EXTERNAL mechanism; for details, refer to draft-cridland-sasl-tls-sessions [12].)
  10. The parties complete SASL negotiation.
  11. Initiating entity sends new initial stream header.
  12. Receiving entity sends response stream header.
  13. Receiving entity sends stream features, offering the SM feature.
  14. Initiating entity requests resumption of the former stream.

To request resumption of the former stream, the initiating entity sends a <resume/> element qualified by the 'urn:xmpp:sm:2' namespace. The <resume/> element MUST include a 'previd' attribute whose value is the SM-ID of the former stream and MAY include an 'h' attribute that identifies the sequence number of the last handled stanza sent over the former stream from the receiving entity to the initiating entity (if stream management was being used in both directions); if there is no such sequence number for the former stream, the 'h' attribute MUST NOT be included.

Example 9. Stream resumption request

C: <resume xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' 
           h='some-sequence-number'
           previd='some-long-sm-id'/>
  

If the receiving entity can resume the former stream, it MUST return a <resumed/> element that includes a 'previd' attribute set to the SM-ID of the former stream. The <resumed/> element MAY also include an 'h' attribute set to the sequence number of the last handled stanza sent over the former stream from the initiating entity to the receiving entity; if there is no such sequence number for the former stream, the 'h' attribute MUST NOT be included.

Example 10. Stream resumed

S: <resumed xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' 
            h='another-sequence-number'
            previd='some-long-sm-id'/>
  

If the receiving entity does not support session resumption, it MUST return a <failed/> element, which SHOULD include an error condition of <feature-not-implemented/>. If the receiving entity does not recognize the 'previd' as an earlier session (e.g., because the former session has timed out), it MUST return a <failed/> element, which SHOULD include an error condition of <item-not-found/>. In both of these failure cases, the receiving entity SHOULD allow the initiating entity to bind a resource at this point rather than forcing the initiating entity to restart the stream negotiation process and re-authenticate.

If the former stream is resumed and the receiving entity still has the stream for the previously-identified session open at this time, the old stream SHOULD be terminated.

When a session is resumed, the parties proceed as follows:

6. Throttling

When a server acts as a receiving entity for an XML stream, it might throttle the stream (i.e., impose rate limiting) if the initiating entity (a client or a server) attempts to send too much traffic over the stream (e.g., a very large number of stanzas, or a lesser number of stanzas that are relatively large). The formulas for determining when rate limiting shall be imposed are implementation-specific; however, nearly all XMPP server implementations include support for such throttling (often called "karma"). Therefore it would be helpful if the receiving entity could inform the initiating entity that the stream has been voluntarily throttled by the receiving entity. [14] It can do so by sending a <t/> element to the receiving entity:

Example 11. Throttling notification

S: <t xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
  

Note: Sending a throttling notification to the stream peer does not necessarily indicate that the entity is throwing away all stanzas, only that the entity has voluntarily slowed its processing of incoming stanzas.

The throttling notification MAY include a 'stanzas' attribute so that the receiving entity can inform the initiating entity of changes to the maximum number of stanzas between acks. This enables the receiving entity to dynamically adjust stanza acking in response to network conditions or stream usage.

Example 12. Throttling notification with acking adjustment

S: <t xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' stanzas='5'/>
  

If the number of unacknowledged stanzas is greater than or equal to the value of the 'stanzas' attribute, a throttled peer MUST NOT send any further stanzas.

If an entity sets the value of 'stanzas' to zero, it has stopped reading from the stream entirely.

For as long as the initiating entity is throttled, the receiving entity SHOULD periodically send a throttling notification to the initiating entity (e.g., every 30 seconds) to obviate the need for pings generated by the initating entity (which the receiving entity will ignore because the initiating entity is throttled).

7. Error Handling

If an error occurs with regard to an <enable/> or <resume/> element, the receiving entity MUST return a <failed/> element. This element SHOULD contain an error condition, which MUST be one of the stanza error conditions defined in rfc3920bis [15].

An example follows.

Example 13. Server returns error

S: <failed xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'>
     <unexpected-request xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
   </failed>
  

Stream management errors SHOULD be considered recoverable; however, misuse of stream management MAY result in termination of the stream.

8. Stream Closure

A cleanly closed stream differs from an unfinished stream. If a client wishes to cleanly close its stream and end its session, it MUST send a </stream:stream> so that the server can send unavailable presence on the client's behalf.

If the stream is not cleanly closed then the server SHOULD consider the stream to be unfinished (even if the client closes its TCP connection to the server) and SHOULD maintain the session on behalf of the client for a limited amount of time. The client can send whatever presence it wishes before leaving the stream in an unfinished state.

9. Scenarios

The following scenarios illustrate several different uses of stream management. The examples are that of a client and a server, but stream management can also be used for server-to-server streams.

9.1 Basic Acking Scenario

The Stream Management protocol can be used to improve reliability using acks without the ability to resume a session. A basic implementation would do the following:

This is enough of an implementation to minimally satisfy the peer, and allows basic tracking of each outbound stanza. If the stream connection is broken, the application has a queue of unacknowledged stanzas that it can choose to handle appropriately (e.g., warn a human user or silently send after reconnecting).

The following examples illustrate basic acking (here the client automatically acks each stanza it has received from the server, without first being prompted via an <r/> element).

First, after authentication and resource binding, the client enables stream management.

Example 14. Client enables stream management

C: <enable xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
    

The server then enables stream management.

Example 15. Server enables stream management

S: <enabled xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
    

The client then retrieves its roster and immediately sends an <r/> element to request acknowledgement.

Example 16. Client sends a stanza and requests acknowledgement

C: <iq id='ls72g593' type='get'>
     <query xmlns='jabber:iq:roster'/>
   </iq>

C: <r xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
    

The server immediately sends an <a/> element to acknowledge handling of the stanza and then returns the roster.

Example 17. Server acknowledges handling of client stanza and sends a stanza

S: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='1'/>

S: <iq id='ls72g593' type='result'>
     <query xmlns='jabber:iq:roster'>
       <item jid='juliet@capulet.lit'/>
       <item jid='benvolio@montague.lit'/>
     </query>
   </iq>

    

The client then acknowledges receipt of the server's stanza, sends initial presence, and immediately sends an <r/> element to request acknowledgement, incrementing by one its internal representation of how many stanzas have been handled by the server.

Example 18. Client sends a stanza and requests acknowledgement

C: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='0'/>

C: <presence/>

C: <r xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
    

The server immediately sends an <a/> element to acknowledge handling of the stanza and then broadcasts the user's presence (including to the client itself as shown below).

Example 19. Server acknowledges handling of client stanza and sends a stanza

S: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='2'/>

S: <presence from='romeo@montague.lit/orchard' 
             to='romeo@montague.lit/orchard'/>
    

The client then acks the server's second stanza and sends an outbound message followed by an <r/> element.

Example 20. Client sends a stanza and requests acknowledgement

C: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='1'/>

C: <message to='juliet@capulet.lit'>
     <body>ciao!</body>
   </message>

C: <r xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'/>
    

The server immediately sends an <a/> element to acknowledge handling of the stanza and then routes the stanza to the remote contact (not shown here because the server does not send a stanza to the client).

Example 21. Server acknowledges handling of the stanza

S: <a xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2' h='3'/>
    

And so on.

9.2 Efficient Acking Scenario

The basic acking scenario is wasteful because the client requested an ack for each stanza. A more efficient approach is to periodically request acks (e.g., every 5 stanzas) in accordance with the 'stanzas' attribute value provided by the receiving entity on the <enabled/> element. This is shown schematically in the following pseudo-XML.

Example 22. An efficient session

C: <enable/>
S: <enabled stanzas='5'/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <r/>
S: <a h='4'/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <r/>
S: <a h='9'/>
    

9.3 Throttling Scenario

As mentioned, many servers will impose rate limiting on clients that send large amounts of traffic. In the following scenario, we assume that the first three messages sent by the client are rather large, so the server voluntarily throttles the client. The server then sends throttling notifications every 30 seconds, dynamically adjusting the maximum number of stanzas between acks as a rough indicator of how serious the throttling is.

Example 23. A session with throttling

C: <enable/>
S: <enabled stanzas='10'/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>

   [throttling kicks in]

S: <t stanzas='3'/>

   [client requests an ack for the first three messages, but
   does not send any more messages until throttling ends]

C: <r/>

   [client still throttled, server ignores <r/> for now]

   [30 seconds go by]

S: <t/>

   [30 seconds go by]

S: <t/>

   [backlog starts to ease, server adjusts 'stanzas' value]

S: <t stanzas='5'/>

   [client sends another message just because it can]

C: <message/>

   [server has handled the first 3 messages so it finally replies to <r/>]

S: <a h='2'/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>
C: <message/>

   [client has sent 5 messages so requests an ack]

C: <r/>

   [throttling is over, server replies to 2nd <r/> and sets 'stanzas' back to 10]

S: <a h='7'/>
S: <t stanzas='10'/>
    

10. Security Considerations

As noted, a receiving entity MUST NOT allow an initiating entity to resume a stream management session until after the initiating entity has authenticated (for some value of "authentication"); this helps to prevent session hijacking.

11. IANA Considerations

This XEP requires no interaction with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) [16].

12. XMPP Registrar Considerations

12.1 Protocol Namespaces

This specification defines the following XML namespace:

The XMPP Registrar [17] includes the foregoing namespace in its registry at <http://xmpp.org/registrar/namespaces.html>, as described in Section 4 of XMPP Registrar Function [18].

12.2 Protocol Versioning

If the protocol defined in this specification undergoes a revision that is not fully backwards-compatible with an older version, the XMPP Registrar shall increment the protocol version number found at the end of the XML namespaces defined herein, as described in Section 4 of XEP-0053.

12.3 Stream Features

The XMPP Registrar includes 'urn:xmpp:sm:2' in its registry of stream features at <http://xmpp.org/registrar/stream-features.html>.

13. XML Schemas

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>

<xs:schema
    xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='urn:xmpp:sm:2'
    xmlns='urn:xmpp:sm:2'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xs:annotation>
    <xs:documentation>
      The protocol documented by this schema is defined in
      XEP-0198: http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0198.html
    </xs:documentation>
  </xs:annotation>

  <xs:element name='a'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='h' 
                        type='xs:integer' 
                        use='required'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='enable'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='max' 
                        type='xs:positiveInteger' 
                        use='optional'/>
          <xs:attribute name='resume' 
                        type='xs:boolean'
                        use='optional'
                        default='false'/>
          <xs:attribute name='stanzas' 
                        type='xs:unsignedShort' 
                        use='optional'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='enabled'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='id' 
                        type='xs:string'
                        use='optional'/>
          <xs:attribute name='max' 
                        type='xs:positiveInteger' 
                        use='optional'/>
          <xs:attribute name='resume' 
                        type='xs:boolean'
                        use='optional'
                        default='false'/>
          <xs:attribute name='stanzas' 
                        type='xs:unsignedShort' 
                        use='optional'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='failed'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:sequence xmlns:err='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas' 
                   minOccurs='0'
                   maxOccurs='1'>
        <xs:group ref='err:stanzaErrorGroup'/>
      </xs:sequence>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='r'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='h' 
                        type='xs:integer' 
                        use='optional'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='resume' type='resumptionElementType'/>

  <xs:element name='resumed' type='resumptionElementType'/>

  <xs:element name='sm'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:choice>
        <xs:element name='optional' type='empty'/>
        <xs:element name='required' type='empty'/>
      </xs:choice>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:element name='t'>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base='empty'>
          <xs:attribute name='stanzas' 
                        type='xs:unsignedShort' 
                        use='optional'/>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:complexType name='resumptionElementType'>
    <xs:simpleContent>
      <xs:extension base='empty'>
        <xs:attribute name='h' 
                      type='xs:unsignedInt' 
                      use='optional'/>
        <xs:attribute name='previd' 
                      type='xs:string' 
                      use='optional'/>
      </xs:extension>
    </xs:simpleContent>
  </xs:complexType>

  <xs:simpleType name='empty'>
    <xs:restriction base='xs:string'>
      <xs:enumeration value=''/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>

</xs:schema>
  

14. Acknowledgements

Thanks to Dave Cridland, Jack Erwin, Philipp Hancke, Curtis King, Tobias Markmann, Alexey Melnikov, Pedro Melo, Robin Redeker, Mickaël Rémond, and Matthew Wild for their feedback.


Appendices


Appendix A: Document Information

Series: XEP
Number: 0198
Publisher: XMPP Standards Foundation
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Version: 1.1rc1
Last Updated: in progress, last updated 2010-02-24
Approving Body: XMPP Council
Dependencies: XMPP Core
Supersedes: None
Superseded By: None
Short Name: sm
Schema: <http://xmpp.org/schemas/sm.xsd>
Source Control: HTML  RSS


Appendix B: Author Information

Justin Karneges

Email: justin@affinix.com
JabberID: justin@andbit.net

Joe Hildebrand

Email: jhildebr@cisco.com
JabberID: hildjj@jabber.org

Peter Saint-Andre

Email: stpeter@jabber.org
JabberID: stpeter@jabber.org
URI: https://stpeter.im/

Fabio Forno

Email: fabio.forno@gmail.com
JabberID: ff@jabber.bluendo.com


Appendix C: Legal Notices

Copyright

This XMPP Extension Protocol is copyright © 1999 - 2010 by the XMPP Standards Foundation (XSF).

Permissions

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this specification (the "Specification"), to make use of the Specification without restriction, including without limitation the rights to implement the Specification in a software program, deploy the Specification in a network service, and copy, modify, merge, publish, translate, distribute, sublicense, or sell copies of the Specification, and to permit persons to whom the Specification is furnished to do so, subject to the condition that the foregoing copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Specification. Unless separate permission is granted, modified works that are redistributed shall not contain misleading information regarding the authors, title, number, or publisher of the Specification, and shall not claim endorsement of the modified works by the authors, any organization or project to which the authors belong, or the XMPP Standards Foundation.

Disclaimer of Warranty

## NOTE WELL: This Specification is provided on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ##

Limitation of Liability

In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall the XMPP Standards Foundation or any author of this Specification be liable for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising from, out of, or in connection with the Specification or the implementation, deployment, or other use of the Specification (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if the XMPP Standards Foundation or such author has been advised of the possibility of such damages.

IPR Conformance

This XMPP Extension Protocol has been contributed in full conformance with the XSF's Intellectual Property Rights Policy (a copy of which can be found at <http://xmpp.org/extensions/ipr-policy.shtml> or obtained by writing to XMPP Standards Foundation, c/o Peter Saint-Andre, 1899 Wynkoop Street, Suite 600, Denver, CO 80202 USA).

Appendix D: Relation to XMPP

The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 3920) and XMPP IM (RFC 3921) specifications contributed by the XMPP Standards Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.


Appendix E: Discussion Venue

The primary venue for discussion of XMPP Extension Protocols is the <standards@xmpp.org> discussion list.

Discussion on other xmpp.org discussion lists might also be appropriate; see <http://xmpp.org/about/discuss.shtml> for a complete list.

Errata can be sent to <editor@xmpp.org>.


Appendix F: Requirements Conformance

The following requirements keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".


Appendix G: Notes

1. RFC 3920: Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3920>.

2. RFC 3920: Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3920>.

3. XEP-0199: XMPP Ping <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0199.html>.

4. rfc3920bis: proposed revisions to Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core <http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-xmpp-3920bis>. (work in progress)

5. XEP-0079: Advanced Message Processing <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0079.html>.

6. XEP-0184: Message Receipts <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0184.html>.

7. XEP-0078: Non-SASL Authentication <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0078.html>.

8. XEP-0220: Server Dialback <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0220.html>.

9. In accordance with Section 3.2.2.1 of XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, the allowable lexical representations for the xs:boolean datatype are the strings "0" and "false" for the concept 'false' and the strings "1" and "true" for the concept 'true'; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical representation.

10. XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/>.

11. In accordance with Section 3.2.2.1 of XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, the allowable lexical representations for the xs:boolean datatype are the strings "0" and "false" for the concept 'false' and the strings "1" and "true" for the concept 'true'; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical representation.

12. On the use of TLS Session resumption and SASL EXTERNAL <http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-cridland-sasl-tls-sessions>. Work in progress.

13. XEP-0030: Service Discovery <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0030.html>.

14. Some forms of "throttling" can occur naturally at the TCP layer without being voluntarily imposed by the receiving entity; the receiving entity cannot inform the initiating entity about such throttling.

15. rfc3920bis: proposed revisions to Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core <http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-xmpp-3920bis>. (work in progress)

16. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.

17. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the XMPP Standards Foundation. For further information, see <http://xmpp.org/registrar/>.

18. XEP-0053: XMPP Registrar Function <http://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0053.html>.


Appendix H: Revision History

Note: Older versions of this specification might be available at http://xmpp.org/extensions/attic/

Version 1.1rc1 (in progress, last updated 2010-02-24)

Corrected value of 'h' so that zero means no stanzas have yet been handled; clarified distinction between a cleanly closed stream and an unfinished stream.

(psa/jk)

Version 1.0 (2009-06-17)

Per a vote of the XMPP Council, advanced specification from Experimental to Draft.

(psa)

Version 0.10 (2009-06-11)

Editorial review.

(psa)

Version 0.9 (2009-06-03)

(psa)

Version 0.8 (2009-04-09)

(ff/jk/jjh/psa)

Version 0.7 (2009-03-30)

Removed pings (use XEP-0199, whitespace pings, or TCP keepalives instead); removed section on throttling, since it is unworkable.

(jjh/psa)

Version 0.6 (2009-03-19)

(psa)

Version 0.5 (2008-09-29)

Removed recommendation to use namespace prefixes; modified namespace to incorporate namespace versioning.

(psa)

Version 0.4 (2008-09-08)

Added support for session resumption; re-organized the document; changed name to stream management; changed provisional namespace.

(jjh/jk/psa)

Version 0.3 (2007-10-03)

Updates per devcon discussion.

(jk)

Version 0.2 (2007-04-05)

Require c attribute on <r/> element. Describe minimal implementation. Switch to standard temporary namespace.

(jk)

Version 0.1 (2006-11-21)

Initial published version.

(psa)

Version 0.0.3 (2006-11-08)

New version, using sequence numbers. (jk)

Version 0.0.2 (2004-12-11)

Further clarification, allow acking many stanzas at once. (jk)

Version 0.0.1 (2004-08-09)

First draft. (jk)

END